This is a step in Getting an API running in Kubernetes, and you should first have created an app to be deployed as described in Building your App ready for Kubernetes deployment, deployed it as described in Creating a Kubernetes deployment and you should already have a cluster up and running as described in Getting cockroachDB running with Kubernetes and are using the Google Cloud console shell with the kubectl CLI.
I recommend that you save your commands in various scripts so you can repeat them or modify them later.
Creating a service
A Kubernetes service is the “product” of one or more pods. The pods are running your app(s), and the service is an abstraction of the final result and communications path to it. In the workflow for the demo playback app, the service part is marked below
The configuration of a Kubernetes resource can become quite involved, so unlike the deployment example, where it was specified through flags to the kubectl CLI interface, this time the configuration will be in a file. These .yaml files use a syntax not unlike, but more concise than JSON. You can read about yaml here but the layout is fairly intuitive and it’s probably not necessary.
The service yaml file
The main points of interest are
- Type ClusterIP flags the service as one that will only be accessible within the cluster. The diagram above shows that it’s not yet being exposed to the outside world
- The port is the port the service will use to communicate to the next stage in the workflow, and the targetPort is the one on which it will communicate with the pods.
- The selector is a label that the service will use to select which pods it is supposed to be servicing, by checking their labels.
You can see the connection to the pods by checking the command below for how the deployment was specified
###kubectl run playback --replicas=2 --image=gcr.io/fid-sql/playback --port=8080 --labels="run=playback-app"
apiVersion: v1 kind: Service metadata: name: playback-service labels: app: playback-service spec: type: ClusterIP ports: - port: 80 targetPort: 8080 selector: run: playback-app
A .yaml file can be passed to kubectl with the -f flag and the verb apply (handy for making changes to an existing resource) or create. I generally use apply for both. As a point of interest, a resource can also be deleted by referencing its yaml file along with the delete verb.
kubectl apply -f service-server.yaml
Check the service
kubectl get service playback-service NAME TYPE CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE playback-service ClusterIP 10.3.251.79 <none> 80/TCP 5m
Notice that there is a cluster-ip (an internal network address), but no external-ip yet.
Exposing the service
At this point you could expose the service directly, since Kubernetes on Google Cloud platform has a loadbalancer type that you could attach this service to with something like. However this is not what we’re going to do. I only show it below to complete the picture.
kubectl expose service playback-service --port=80 --target-port=80 --name=playback-temp --type=LoadBalancer
After a time, this would be allocated an external ip address. You could then head over and open the firewall on that ip address on that port.
kubectl get service playback-temp NAME TYPE CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE playback-temp LoadBalancer 10.3.247.213 18.104.22.168 80:30609/TCP 1m
But this is not what we need to do – as this will only give an insecure connection, so let’s delete that service again
kubectl delete service playback-temp
Now there is an internal service running, offering up the services of your app – but only internally within the cluster. The next step is to work on an ingress controller. See Getting an API running in Kubernetes for how (subpages below|).
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